Section A Lighten Your Load and Save Your Life
Teaching objective: to teach the students how to use some new words and phrases, typical sentence structures out of the text; to practice the students’ skill of translating and summarizing; and to get the students know how to relieve their stress in study and life.
Questions for discussion
1. Do you often experience stress in your study or everyday life?
2. How do you get rid of it?
Step One: Warm up activity
Benjamin (Ben) Franklin, a very famous American of the 1700’s best known for his experiments with electricity and nature using kites.
Step Two: Text analysis
1. Central topic: Centering around how to lighten your load and save your life, the passage analyzes the root of stress and provides the ways of reducing stress according to the study of Dr. Robert S. Eliot of Nebraska University.
Part I (Paras.1-7): The relation between stress and health discovered by Dr. Robert S. Eliot.
Part II (Paras. 8-11): The root of stress.
Part III (Paras. 12-20): The ways of lightening the load.
2. Major writing techniques
3) Cause and effect
Step Three Words and Phrases
1. be overwhelmed with / by; overwhelming / irresistible / overpowering / devastating
2. out of control: beyond control / under control
3. among other things: to name a few
She’s very keen on sports: among other things, she plays tennis once a week.
4. excess: extra / additional; excessive: too much; exceed / surpass / excel / top
excess: amount that is more than necessary
Inflation results from an excess of demand over supply.
excessive / exceed / access
excel ( excellent ) / surpass / exceed / in excess of 超过, 多于/ access
To excel in something is to be very good at it.
People excel in different things.
In international competitions, the Chinese excel in (at) table-tennis and badminton.
surpass vt 越过，超过;凌驾 The task surpassed his skill.
The cost will not exceed $50. 费用不会超过50美元。
The results of the competition exceeded our expectations. 比赛的结果比我们预料的好。
5. 1) attribute to = owe … to 归因于，认为是……的结果
The heavy snow attributed the delay of our school bus this morning. 因下雪而耽搁
David attributed his company's success to the unity of all the staff and their persevering hard work.
2) contribute vt. 贡献出; 投(稿); 捐赠(款项等)
contribute to the Red Cross 向红十字会捐献
contribute to a literary journal 向文学杂志投稿
Drink contributed to his ruin. 酗酒促使他毁灭。
They contributed food and clothing for the refugees. 他们向难民捐赠食品和衣物。
3) distribute vt.分发, 分配, 散布, 分类,
distribute books among the students 把书分给学生
distribute seeds over a field 在田间播种
4) tribute n.贡品, 礼物, 颂词, 殷勤, 贡物;(与to连用)赞词;颂词;礼物
The doctor paid tribute to his nurses by praising their work. 医生称赞护士们的工作。
pay a high tribute to sb.'s ability 高度称赞某人的能力
6. delegate: give to sb. for a certain time; delegation: n.代表团, 授权, 委托
He delegate his responsibilities to his assistant when he goes on business.
The people delegate their power to the Congress. 人民授权予国会。
Many countries send delegates to the United States.
7. emphasis: give emphasis to / put emphasis on / attach importance to
8. recommend / suggest / advise / propose + doing; … + sb + to do; … + that + sb. should do
He is recommended for the award owing to his brave act of saving the drowning child.
9. substitute A for B = substitute B with A; replace A with/ by B
10. stimulate / simulate / inspire / generate / arouse
The beautiful view / scenery of countryside inspired him to write poems.
Zhang Jiajie is a world-famous scenic spot .
11. even-tempered: 性情平和的;mild-tempered; hot-/quick-/short-tempered: 脾气急躁的;sweet-tempered; moody-tempered: 喜怒无常的;good-tempered; bad-/ill-tempered
12. troublesome: a ~ student; a ~ matter
quarrelsome: 好争吵的;burdensome: 繁重的，负担的;tiresome: boring; lonesome: 孤单的
13. deadline: the last possible date or time by which sth. must be done or finished
What's your deadline for finishing the book report?
The work was done two hours before Friday's 5 p. m. deadline.
front line / hotline / finish line / scratch line 起跑线 / underline / headline / outline
14. overwhelm vt.
He was overwhelmed with grief at the news of his son’s death in an accident.
They were overwhelmed by the enemy. 他们被敌军击败了。
15. attribute vt.
They attributed their success to their teacher’s encouragement.
1,150 deaths a year can be attributed to drunk driving. 每年有1,150人死于酒后驾驶。
16. exterior n..& a
He is a gentle man with a rough exterior. 他是一个外表粗鲁但性情温和的男人。
In some of the villages the exterior walls of the houses are painted pink.
17. delegate v. &n.
Many nations send delegates to the United States. 许多国家向联合国派驻代表。
He delegated his responsibilities to an assistant. 他委托一名助手代施其责。
18. …they have no compass in life. And they give the same emphasis to a traffic jam that they give a family argument,” … (Para. 10)
Meaning: These people have no way to know the right direction they should follow in life. And they get equally angry about a traffic jam and about a family quarrel.
“Compass” refers to a device used to find direction. In this sentence “compass” is used in its figurative sense.
19. recommend vt.
Can you recommend me a good hotel in the city? 你能给我介绍一家城里的好旅馆吗?
They recommend her for the job. 他们推荐她做这项工作。
a. If it is followed directly by a verb, the verb should be in the -ing form.
b. If it is followed by a “that-clause”, the verb in the “that-clause” should be used in its base form or used together with the modal auxiliary “should”.
20. substitute v&n.
He substituted for the worker who was ill. 他代替那个生病的工人。
Water isn’t a proper substitute for wine. 水不是酒的恰当替代品。
21. cut down
Your article is too long. Please cut it down to 1,000 words.
22. blow one’s top (L.31)
He blew his top when the conversation was interrupted by telephone for the third time.
23. stir in one’s own juice (L.34)
他为自己的过失而受煎熬。He stirred in his own juice because of the mistake he made.
24. blow apart (L.37)
He was so angry that he felt he was going to blow apart.
25. be on one’s trail (L.44)
Remember to enjoy from time to time the view along when you are walking on your trail of life.
Step Four After-reading activity
Summarize the passage using the tips below.
1) frequent anger and overwhelming stress
2) take charge of your life
3) tremendous and rapid increases in their blood pressure
4) crazy heart rhythms
5) FUD factors—fear, uncertainty and doubt
6) the root of their stress
7) a feeling that everything must be perfect
8) a lack of compass in life
9) the NICE factors—new, interesting, challenging experiences
10) set your priorities in your life
11) flow rather than fight or flee
2. Work in groups and discuss the following questions with your group, using as many words and expressions you learned from the text as possible.
1) What do you need to do in order to avoid breaking your own heart?
2) For many people, what is the root of their stress?
3) How can you take charge of your life?
4) How can you decide what parts of your life you can control?
Section B and Section C
1. Reading skills
2. Ask the students to translate some difficult sentences.
Step Five Self Test:
1. Of the thousands of known volcanoes in the world, the ______ majority are inactive. (CET-6, 97-1, 59题)
A) tremendous B) demanding C) intensive D) overwhelming
I was ______ by their kindness and moved to tears. (CET-6, 95-6, 54题)
A) preoccupied B) embarrassed C) overwhelmed D) counselled
2. How large a proportion of the sales of stores in or near resort areas can be ______ to tourist spending? (在职硕士, 1998-6, 28题)
A) contributed B) applied C) attributed D) attached
We ______ Edison's success to his intelligence and hard work. (CET-6, 1991-6, 69题)
A) subject B) attribute C) owe D) refer
The car accident was ______ to the driver's violation of the traffic regulations. (CET-6, 1993-1, 53题)
A) assigned B) contributed C) attributed D) transferred
Experts ______ the present teaching situation to the examination-oriented education system. (教育硕士联考, 2001-1, 12题)
A) attach B) appoint C) attribute D) admit
3. John's mindless exterior concealed a warm and kindhearted nature. (在职硕士,2000-6, 18题)
A) appearance B) personality C) outlook D) temper
4. John Dewey believed that education should be a preparation for life, that a person learns by doing, and that teaching must ______ the curiosity and creativity of children. (CET-4, 98-6, 50题)
A) seek B) stimulate C) shape D) secure
An important property of a scientific theory is its ability to ______ further research and further thinking about a particular topic. (硕士统考, 1999-1, 21题)
A) stimulate B) renovate C) arouse D) advocate
5. Strenuous efforts have been made to ______ government expenses to a desirable level. (硕士统考, 1988-1, 9题)
A) cut down v.砍倒, 胜过, 削减, 删节 to cut down on smoking 减少抽烟
B) cut short v.打断, 缩减(有时作cut shorter);突然打断;突然中止
The chairman had to cut short the proceedings. 会议主席只得提早结束议程。
C) cut out v.切掉, 裁剪出, 取代, 停止 D) cut off v.切断, 断绝, 剥夺继承权
6. When the whole area was ______ by the flood, the government sent food there by helicopter. (CET-3, 2000-1, 73题)
A) cut up 切碎, 歼灭, 使丧气B) cut off C) cut away 切掉, 砍掉D) cut down 砍倒, 削减
7. Don't ______ while I'm talking. You can say what you want later. (在职硕士, 1999-6, 26题)
A) cut out 切掉, 裁剪出,停止 B) cut in 插嘴, 插入, 把...插进 C) cut off D) cut down
8. Jack was about to announce our plan but I______. (CET-6, 97-6, 55题)
A) put him through B) turned him out C) gave him up D) cut him short
9. He found the ______ media attention intolerable and decided to go abroad. (CET-4, 2005-1, 56题)
A) sufficient B) constant C) steady D) plenty
10. Over the past ten years, natural gas production has remained steady, but ______ has risen steadily. (CET-6, 2003-6, 70题)
A) dissipation B) disposal C) consumption D) expenditure
11. Faster progress can be made through cooperation than through ______ because the sides that are against each other often waste time and energy learning the same things. (CET-3, 1999-1, 53题)
A) match B) challenge C) competition D) race
12. He will______ resign in view of the complete failure of the research project. (CET-6, 1999-1, 64题)
A) doubtfully B) adequately C) presumably D) reasonably
13. It's usually the case that people seldom behave ______ in a way when in a furious state. (硕士统考, 1995-1, 40题)
A) stable B) rational C) legal D) credible
14. They were ______admission to the military exhibition because they were foreigners. (CET-4, 2003-9, 68题)
A) denied B) declined C) deprived D) rejected
American women were _____ the right to vote until 1920 after many years of hard struggle. (CET-4, 91-6, 58题)
A) ignored B) neglected C) refused D) denied
The police accused him of setting fire to the building but he denied ______ in the area on the night of the fire. (CET-6, 96-1, 41题)
A) to be B) to have been C) having been D) be
Failure in a required subject may result in the ______ of a diploma. (CET-6, 2001-6, 45题)
A) refusal B) betrayal C) denial D) burial
He was ______ admittance to the theatre for not being properly dressed. (硕士统考, 1988-1, 12题)
A) denied B) rejected C) repelled D) deprived
Some teenagers harbor a generalized resentment against society, which ______ them the rights and privileges of adults, although physically they are mature. (硕士统考, 1993-1, 22题)
A) deprives B) restricts C) rejects D) denies
15. In the Chinese household, grandparents and other relatives play ______ roles in raising children. (CET-4, 2002-1, 48题)
A) incapable B) indispensable C) insensible D) infinite
It is well known that knowledge is the ______ condition for expansion of mind. (硕士统考, 1994-1, 25题)
A) incompatible B) incredible C) indefinite D) indispensable
16. First published in 1927, the charts remain an ______ source for researchers. (CET-4, 2004-6, 48题)
A) identical B) indispensable C) intelligent D) inevitable
17. Their diplomatic principles completely laid bare their ______ for world conquest. (CET-6, 2001-1, 33题)
A) admiration B) ambition C) administration D)orientation
18. This crop does not do well in soils _____ the one for which it has been specially developed. (CET-4, 99-1, 56题)
A) outside B) other than C) beyond D) rather than
Children in the United States are exposed to many influences ______ those of their families. (在职硕士, 1999-6, 30题)
A) rather than B) better than
C) more than D) other than
In no country _____ Britain, it has been said, can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day. (CET-4, 99-6, 66题)
A) other than B) more than C) better than D) rather than
19. We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style ______ in a personal one. (硕士统考, 1995-1, 7题)
A) rather than B) other than C) better than D) less than
Young adults ______ older people are more likely to prefer pop songs. (CET-4, 96-6, 40题)
A) other than B) more than C) less than D) rather than
Nuclear science should be developed to benefit the people ______ harm them. (CET-3, 1998-6, 54题)
A) better than B) more than C) other than D) rather than